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<p>This monograph presents an attempt to address the role of cultural memory in the formation of the language of architecture which is reflected on the facades of buildings. Understanding and identifying the characteristics of the architectural language affecting the evaluation of architectural objects as cultural heritage can help to measure the invisible social context, and it can also facilitate the adaptive re-use processes. The work additionally employs new discursive frames and research methods which effectively produce both theoretical discussions and potential practical applications. For analysing the built heritage of the Modern Movement, the cities of Ankara (Turkey) and Kaunas (Lithuania) were selected. The reason for selecting the two cities is related to the fact that, even though they went through a similar process around the same period, they represent different cultural and environmental backgrounds. Furthermore, even though they both chose to use the Modern Movement as the primary architectural language in the city construction and development, they produced different expressions.</p>